Health - Diabetes, Diabetes- causes and symptoms



Diabetes mellitus is a disorder that affects the body's ability to efficiently utilize blood glucose. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, so glucose cannot be absorbed to refuel the cells. In Type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced, but it does not work properly and the glucose is not absorbed consistently by the cells.


Stress And Diabetes

It has also been discovered stress has a severe impact on blood glucose as it causes an elevation of adrenalin in addition to other hormones. Adrenalin can make a person more resistant to the effects of insulin, so no matter if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes stress can raise blood glucose levels.

What causes type 1 diabetes is not fully understood. What is known, however, is a person must have a genetic risk factor. Researchers are now trying to identify. Contrary to popular belief not everyone with a family history of type 1 diabetes develops it. It is also known there must also be an environmental risk. The exact environmental dynamics arent as yet apparent but its believed by leading researchers it could be connected to a virus. Heres an interesting fact. Approximately 90 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have no family history of it. However a genetic risk has to be present for it to occur.

Sedentary Lifestyle

On the other hand, type 2 diabetes usually occurs within families. The world's inclination toward a more sedentary lifestyle and fatty foods have caused an increase of obesity in some countries which appears to be the cause why type 2 diabetes is escalating. However, not all obese people get type 2 diabetes either.

A high blood glucose concentration impacts almost every organ in the body. current research is focusing on drugs that may reverse the damage done by high glucose levels. But, the best therapy is preventing damage before it occurs by trying to avoid excessive high glucose levels. Studies have revealed complications of diabetes, particularly those involving the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, can be significantly reduced by keeping blood glucose level below 150. Diagnosing diabetes can only be accomplished with blood glucose testing in a laboratory. A commercially purchased glucose monitor and test strips are not adequate.

The American Diabetes Association advises people without symptoms but at risk for type 2 diabetes be tested every three years. This would include people over 45, women with diabetes during a pregnancy or a baby born weighing over 9 pounds, anyone obese and living a sedentary lifestyle, anyone having high blood pressure, and those with a family history of diabetes.


Diabetes Type 1:

In type 1, the pancreas stop producing insulin due to autuimmune response or possibly viral attack on pancreas. In absence of insulin, body cells dont get the required glucose for producing ATP (Adenosin Triphosphate) units which results into primary symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting. In later stage, which leads to ketoacidosis, the body starts breaking down the muscle tissue and fat for producing energy hence, causing fast weight loss. Dehydration is also usually observed due to electrolyte disturbance. In advanced stages, coma and death is witnessed.

Diabetes Type 2:

Increased fatigue : Due to inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose, reserve fat of body is metabolized to gain energy. When fat is broken down in the body, it uses more energy as compared to glucose, hence body goes in negative calorie effect, which results in fatigue.

Polydipsia : As the concentration of glucose increases in the blood, brain receives signal for diluting it and, in its counteraction we feel thirsty.

Polyuria: Increase in urine production is due to excess glucose present in body. Body gets rid of the extra sugar in the blood by excreting it through urine. This leads to dehydration because along with the sugar, a large amount of water is excreted out of the body.

Polyphegia : The hormone insulin is also responsible for stimulating hunger. In order to cope up with high sugar levels in blood, body produces insulin which leads to increased hunger.

Weight flactuation : Factors like loss of water (polyuria), glucosuria , metabolism of body fat and protein may lead to weight loss. Few cases may show weight gain due to increased appetite.

Blurry vision : Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome is the condition when body fluid is pulled out of tissues including lenses of the eye, which affects its ability to focus, resulting blurry vision.

Irritability : It is a sign of high blood sugar because of the inefficient glucose supply to the brain and other body organs, which makes us feel tired and uneasy.

Infections : The body gives few signals whenever there is fluctuation in blood sugar (due to suppression of immune system) by frequent skin infections like fungal or bacterial or UTI (urinary tract infection).

Poor wound healing : High blood sugar resists the flourishing of WBC, (white blood cell) which are responsible for body immune system. When these cells do not function accordingly, wound healing is not at good pace. Secondly, long standing diabetes leads to thickening of blood vessels which affect proper circulation of blood in different body parts.

The topic on Health - Diabetes is posted by - Malar

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