Linux - Essential shortcuts or commands, Simple shortcut commands
Essential shortcuts or commands
<Ctrl><Alt><F1>Switch to the first text terminal. Under Linux you can have several (6 in standard setup) terminals opened at the same time.
<Ctrl><Alt><Fn> (n=1..6)Switch to the nth text terminal.
ttyPrint the name of the terminal in which you are typing this command.
<Ctrl><Alt><F7>Switch to the first GUI terminal (if X-windows is running on this terminal).
<Ctrl><Alt><Fn> (n=7..12)Switch to the nth GUI terminal (if a GUI terminal is running on screen n-1). On default, nothing is running on terminals
8 to 12, but you can run another server there.
<Tab>(In a text terminal) Autocomplete the command if there is only one option, or else show all the available options.
THIS SHORTCUT IS GREAT! It even works at LILO prompt!
<ArrowUp>Scroll and edit the command history. Press
<Shift><PgUp>Scroll terminal output up. Work also at the login prompt, so you can scroll through your bootup messages.
<Shift><PgDown>Scroll terminal output down.
<Ctrl><Alt><+>(in X-windows) Change to the next X-server resolution (if you set up the X-server to more than one resolution). For multiple resolutions on my standard SVGA card/monitor, I have the following line in the file /etc/X11/XF86Config (the first resolution starts on default, the largest determines the size of the "virtual screen"):
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480" "512x384" "480x300" "400x300" "1152x864"
<Ctrl><Alt><->(in X-windows) Change to the previous X-server resolution.
<Ctrl><Alt><BkSpc>(in X-windows) Kill the current X-windows server. Use if the X-windows server crushes and cannot be exited normally.
<Ctrl><Alt><Del>Shut down the system and reboot. This is the normal shutdown command for a user at the text-mode console. Don't just press the "reset" button for shutdown!
<Ctrl>cKill the current process (mostly in the text mode for small applications).
<Ctrl>dLog out from the current terminal. See also the next command.
<Ctrl>dSend [End-of-File] to the current process. Don't press it twice else you also log out (see the previous command).
<Ctrl>sStop the transfer to the terminal.
<Ctrl>qResume the transfer to the terminal. Try if your terminal mysteriously stops responding.
<Ctrl>zSend the current process to the background.
exitLogout. I can also use logout for the same effect. (If you have started a second shell, e.g., using bash the second shell will be exited and you will be back in the first shell, not logged out.)
resetRestore a screwed-up terminal (a terminal showing funny characters) to default setting. Use if you tried to "cat" a binary file. You may not be able to see the command as you type it.
<MiddleMouseButton>Paste the text which is currently highlighted somewhere else. This is the normal "copy-paste" operation in Linux. (It doesn't work with Netscape and WordPerfect which use the MS Windows-style "copy-paste". It does work in the text terminal if you enabled "gpm" service using "setup".) Best used with a Linux-ready 3-button mouse (Logitech or similar) or else set "3-mouse button emulation").
~(tilde) My home directory (normally the directory /home/my_login_name). For example, the command cd ~/my_dir will change my working directory to the subdirectory "my_dir" under my home directory. Typing just "cd" alone is an equivalent of the command "cd ~".
.(dot) Current directory. For example, ./my_program will attempt to execute the file "my_program" located in your current working directory.
..(two dots) Directory parent to the current one. For example, the command cd .. will change my current working directory one one level up.
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