What is file system

Linux File System

What is file system A file system (sometimes written filesystem) is the way in which files are named and where they are placed logically for storage and retrieval. The DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh, and UNIX-based operating systems all have file systems in which files are placed somewhere in  ..

What is pam

Pluggable Authentication Modules

What is PAM? (Pluggable Authentication Modules) A programming interface that enables third-party security methods to be used in Unix. For example, smart cards, Kerberos and RSA technologies can be integrated with various Unix functions such as rlogin, telnet and ftp.   ..

What is kernel

How Linux kernal works

What is kernel? The kernel is a program that constitutes the central core of a computer operating system. It has complete control over everything that occurs in the system. A kernel can be contrasted with a shell (such as bash, csh or ksh in Unix-like operating systems), which  ..

How to install qmhandle qmail

Steps to install qmHandle

qmHandle 1.3.0 for handling qmail qmHandle 1.3.0 has some new features to delete actions based on sender or content found in the headers or body and tagging messages for earlier retry based on remote destination. qmHandle is a simple program which allows you to view and manage the qmail message queue. Download qmhandle-1.3.0.tar.gz  ..

How to single certificate for multiple domains

Installation of single SSL certificate for multiple domains

Steps to Install of single SSL certificate for multiple domains We can Install a single Certificate for multiple domains if the certificate is a UCC certificate. It is not a Shared SSL Certificate it is a dedicated SSL certificate. Unified Communications Certificates (UCC) are SSL Certificates that secure multiple domains and multiple  ..

Command to find ddos attack

Netstat command

To find DDOS Attack netstat -tn | grep :80 | awk '\''{print $5}'\'' | cut -f1 -d: | sort | uniq -c | sort -rn | head The above command will print the number of hits from the a specific IP address Top 10 Users of your system ps -eo user,pcpu,pid,command |  ..

How ip tables works


Use Of Iptables? Filtering packets based on a MAC address and the values of the flags in the TCP header. This is helpful in preventing attacks using malformed packets and in restricting access from locally attached servers to other networks in spite of their IP addresses. Firewall also keeps track of each  ..

What is security enhanced linux


What is Security Enhanced LINUX Security-enhanced Linux is a research prototype of the Linux kernel and a number of utilities with enhanced security functionality designed simply to demonstrate the value of mandatory access controls to the Linux community and how such controls could be added to Linux. The Security-enhanced Linux kernel  ..

Wordpress installation

Steps to install wordpress

Follow the steps below to install wordpress: These steps will help you to install wordpress easily, follow these simple steps one by one. Requirements: 1. PHP version 4.2 or greater 2. MySQL version version 4.0 or greater 3. The Apache mod_rewrite module Setup your MySQL database from within your control panel and note the followings to  ..

Command to find gateway ip

How to find gateway ip address of my machine?

To find gateway IP address netstat -ar /sbin/route Both the command will print the same result. Output: Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface   ..

Find replace hidden characters vi editor

Search hidden characters in vi editor

How will find and and replace the hidden characters in vi editor Vi editor is such an awesome editor for developers. while you do coding with other editors it may help you with auto syntax but the garbage values written by it while saving the file may make your  ..

Search control m character in files

Find ^M / ctrl+M character in a file

To find files which control M characters use the following method. grep -R ^M * How to type ^M ? Type using ctrl+v+m or just "^" + m Ctrl+v will get you the ^ character.   ..

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